Explore compelling research and evidence endorsing the efficacy of the Fluency Focus teaching programme.

Fluency Focus blogs and further reading







Further reading


From the EEF:


Breadmore, H. L., Vardy, E. J., Cunningham, A.J., Kwok, R. K. W. and Carroll, J. M. (2019). Literacy Development: EvidenceReview. London: Education Endowment Foundation. Available at:https://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/public/files/Literacy_Development_Evidence_Review.pdf

EEF Improving Literacy at KS2 GuidanceReport



EEF (2021). Teaching and Learning Toolkit:Reading Comprehension Strategies. London: Education Endowment Foundation.





Lemov, D., Driggs, C., Woolway, E. (2016) ReadingReconsidered: A Practical Guide to Rigorous Literacy Instruction. NewJersey: Jossey Bass.


Such, C. (2021). The Art and Science ofTeaching Primary Reading. London: Sage.


Quigley, A. (2020). Closing the Reading Gap.London: Routledge.


Rasinski, T. and Cheesman Smith, M. (2018). TheMegabook of Fluency. New York: Scholastic.



Research papers


Adlof, S. M. and Hogan, T. P. (2018). UnderstandingDyslexia in the Context of Developmental Language Disorders’, Language, Speechand Hearing Services in Schools. 49 (4), pp. 762–73.


Ardoin, S. Binder, K. Foster, T. and Zawoyski,M. (2016). Repeated versus wide reading: a randomized control design studyexamining the impact of fluency interventions on underlying reading behaviour.Journal of School Psychology, 59(6), 13-38.


Catts, H. W., Adlof, S. M., Hogan, T. P. andWeismer, S. E. (2005). Are Specific Language Impairment and DyslexiaDistinct Disorders? Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 48,pp. 1378–96.


Duke, N. K. and Pearson, P. D. (2002). EffectivePractices for Developing Reading Comprehension. in Farstup, A. E. andSamuels, S. J. (eds) What Research has to Say About Reading Instruction.Newark: International Reading Association, pp. 205¬–242.


Garrett, T. D., and O’Connor, D. (2010). Readers’Theater: “Hold on, let’s read it again.”. Teaching Exceptional Children,43(1), pp. 6-13.


Levesque, K., Breadmore, H. and Deacon S. H.(2021). How Morphology Impacts Reading and Spelling: Advancing the Role ofMorphology in Models of Literacy Development. Journal of Research inReading, 44 (1), pp. 10–26.


Marulis, L. M., & Neuman, S. B. (2010). TheEffects of Vocabulary Intervention on Young Children’s Word Learning: AMeta-Analysis Review of Educational Research, 80(3), 300-335


Nation, K. (2019). Children’s ReadingDifficulties, Language, and Reflections on the Simple View of Reading.Australian Journal of Learning Difficulties, 24 (1), pp. 47–73.


National Reading Panel (2000). Teachingchildren to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific researchliterature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports ofthe subgroups. Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and HumanDevelopment, 4 - 39.


Pea, R. D. (2004). The Social and TechnologicalDimensions of Scaffolding and Related Theoretical Concepts for Learning,Education, and Human Activity. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13, pp.423–51.


Rasinski, T., Reutzel, C., Chard, D., andLinan-Thompson, S. (2011). Reading fluency, in Kamil, M. L., Pearson, P.D., Moje, E. B. and Afflerbach, P. (eds), Handbook of Reading Research(Vol. 4, pp. 286–319), New York: Routledge.


Scott, A., Binder, K., Foster, T. andZawoyski, M. (2016). Repeated Versus Wide Reading: A Randomized ControlDesign Study Examining the Impact of Fluency Interventions on UnderlyingReading Behaviour. Journal of School Psychology, 59 (6), pp. 13–38.


Snowling, M. J., and Hulme, C. (2011). Evidence-BasedInterventions for Reading and Language Difficulties: Creating a Virtuous Circle.British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, pp. 1–23. 32.


Swanson, H. and O’Connor, R. (2009). Therole of working memory and fluency practice on the reading comprehension ofstudents who are dysfluent readers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(6), 548–575.


Therrien W. (2004). Fluency andcomprehension gains as a result of repeated reading: A meta-analysis.Remedial and Special Education, 25 (4), 252–261.


Torgerson, C. J., Brooks, G. and Hall, J.(2006). A Systematic Review of the Research Literature on the Use of Phonicsin the Teaching of Reading and Spelling. London: Department for Educationand Skills.


Young, C. and Rasinski, T. (2018). ReadersTheatre: Effects on Word Recognition Automaticity and Reading Prosody. Journalof Research in Reading, 41, pp. 475-485.


Young, C. Stokes, F. and Rasinski, T. (2017). ReadersTheatre Plus Comprehension and Word Study. The Reader Teacher, 71(3), pp.351-355.


Zutell, J. and Rasinski, T. V. (1991). TrainingTeachers to Attend to Their Students’ Oral Reading Fluency. Theory intoPractice, 30, pp. 211–217.